Political development is the development of attitudes, institutions, and political behaviors that merge to form a political system in a country. Political development, which is neither irreversible nor linear, refers to the formation of such a system in a society, which enhances the state’ s ability to implement the laws and allocate the resources. Martinussen (1997) found that political development is essential to process inputs into such outputs that can be implemented for the benefits of society. Any country needs the development of a proper political system in order to run the government institutions in an appropriate manner because it is very difficult to manage those institutions without having a well-structured political system.
Such countries face political decline where there are no signs of political development because political problems cannot be solved easily without the development of a proper political system in a country. Kingsbury (2007) found that political development reflects a process of change that is away from archaic political forms, such as feudalism, through to authoritarian or oligarchic political systems, or on the extreme end, a totalitarian or parasitic form of government (p. 17).
Bringing democracy in a country and then strengthening the roots of democracy is one of the main motives of political development. The main goal of political development is human freedom, which is vital for pursuing capabilities and realizing rights (Kingsbury, 2007, p. 17). Political development not only results in the implementation of laws but also brings considerable changes in the social and political dimensions of a society. Political development is also necessary to strengthen the economic system of a country. It is because there is a strong link between the economic development and political system of a country.
Political development involves such characteristics and variables, which not only changes the attitudes of the political culture but also carries out considerable institutional reforms. Models of political development play an important role in setting the dimensions of a desired political system. There is no single model for political development. The two models presented by the political development literature include unilinear and monolithic models. Democratization is one of the trends in modern political science and it can be a transition from an authoritarian political regime to a democratic political regime.
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