Another variant produced in this wave focused on literacy and culture development. It stated that the communication would facilitate literacy and additional skills and techniques that encourage the state of mind towards favorable modernity (Inglehart & Christian 65). This variant encouraged the thinking that an image is the alternative of life beyond the traditional ways. Lastly, this wave embodied the need to establish national identity development. Its support would eventually lead to the birth of the new nations that came as colonies and eventually support the establishment of democratic policies (Billet 48).
These conventional theories; however face discrediting arguments in that they highly depict a pro-western bias. Those opposed to these developments of the modernization theory oppose the same from its aspects of focusing on the western considerations as the superior and civilized developments (Gilman 41). Thus, the biased aspect of the waves of modernization theory and the developments as they followed constitutes the core areas of disagreement. The successive wave of the modernization theory followed from the 1950s to 1980s (Billet 49). This wave of the modernization theory did not support the developments and propositions embodied in the western modernization processes.
On the contrary, the core arguments of this wave of the modernization process held that the case of western cultural and economic imperialism created aspects of dependency (Scott 43). Thus, this wave of the modernization process led to the birth of the dependency theory. The dependency aspect factored in that the propositions as developed in the modernization process would lead to an overdependence on the part of the recipients of the processes of the development. The final wave of the modernization theory started rising from the 1990s and reflected the high or post-modernity considerations.
This development possesses a rather impartial approach to the modernization process, viewing the western modernization from the varied perspectives (Gilman 56).
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