The third objective was to evaluate how the challenges can be overcome. These challenges can be overcome through an integrated supply chain. Uncertainties can come up at any stage of the project but the supply chain and the project team must be able to be responsive to the situation. The study concludes by citing the limitations and suggesting areas for further research. Organizations were unable to cope with all activities on their own and started seeking partnerships by way of outsourcing or collaboration. When they experienced and perceived the benefits of collaborative relationships, the concept of supply chain management emerged (Lummus & Vokurka, 1999).
Supply chain is a chain or a sequence of processes and activities undertaken for the complete manufacturing and distribution cycle of any product. It is known as a chain because it is used to describe the chain of activities and link the different companies connected together for most efficient economic delivery of a product (Aghazadeh, 2004). It is a network of collaborating partners who collectively engage in activities such as procurement and transformation of materials into products, and distribution of products to customers (Chalasani & Sounderpandian, 2004).
Supply chain, if effectively managed, can eliminate communication barriers and eliminate redundancies through coordination, effective monitoring and controlling processes (Power, 2005). Zeng and Pathak (2003) cite Lee (2000) who finds that there are three dimensions essential for supply chain integration – information integration, coordination and organizational linkage, as shown in Table I: This suggests that the supply chain has to be well integrated to achieve the intended outcome. As far as projects are concerned, the supply chain efficiency determines the outcome.
Projects need to be efficiently managed to achieve the desired results. Project management has been defined by Duncan (1996) as “the application of knowledge skills, tools and techniques to project activities in order to meet or exceed stakeholder needs and expectations from the project” (cited by Dooley, Lupton & Sullivan, 2006). Projects are temporary in nature and are primarily unique. Management of projects has become crucial for the development and survival of any economy (Dweiri & Kablan, 2006). A project could be the entire process necessary to produce a new product, new plant, new system or other specific results.
The entire project
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