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Learning Related Literature

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This can be compared to activities involving manual skills such as swimming which induces long-term recall. A variation of James Asher’ s Total Physical Response experiment was made by Valerian Postovsky, who utilized writing as a non-verbal response to teach the Russian language. A student would hear a foreign word as well as see its transcription simultaneously. He will then write a foreign word in response to an auditory stimulus (Postovsky, 1974). These written responses were used as a substitute for oral practice. The positive nature of the results was similar to Asher’ s, in that students developed better overall language proficiency because of the delay in oral responses during the earlier portion of the instruction. Around this time, TAPAC (Totally Automated Psychological Assessment Console) was being used by Winitz and Reeds (1973).

This machine provided students with auditory input to be followed two seconds later by four projected pictures. Students can then choose one of the pictures which they think matches the auditory input by touching the panel screen. The responses of the machine would either be a screen display of correct combined with the use of a light and pleasant tune or an unpleasant buzzer sound along with an incorrect sign.

This program would continue until around 3000 vocabulary items have been learned by the student. No general rules of the language would be given to encourage students to derive or formulate the rules themselves. This comprehension method was tested against three orally active training methods which included: imitation and two types of paraphrasing, elaboration with contrasts present, and elaboration without contrasts present which yielded favorable results for the method (Winitz, 1981).

This method has some common characteristics with Asher’ s Total Physical Response, in that it is audiovisual in nature, but it also utilizes motor skills. Inductive thinking would later be used for some items in this method. Swaffar and Woodruff (1978) created a program at the University of Texas which utilized Ashers learning strategy of physical response to oral commands in the first month which was followed by reading for global meaning.

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