LAB IDENTIFICATION OF Clostridium difficile By Introduction Clostridium difficile is a type of anaerobic spore-forming bacteria which upon infecting a human being causes inflammation of the large intestine (colitis) leading to Clostridium difficile colitis. The bacterium disturbs the normal bacteria needed in the colon resulting in the excretion of mucosal damage and inflammation. At this stage, the infected persons experience inflammation and severe swelling of the bowel due to the infected colon. One of the key causal factors of Clostridium difficile infection is antibiotic therapy. The infection normally affects hospitalized patients, or patients who have been on antibiotic treatment.
Antibiotics are common in altering the colonic flora, thus the correlation. Today, the infection has attained a global threat level, with deaths in large economies such as the United States estimated at above 14,000 per year. Diagnosis of Clostridium difficile is usually complicated since its outcomes are similar to those shown by other bacteria such as Campylobacter spp. , Clostridium perfringens, or Salmonella spp. Several diagnostic methods exist, such as Colonoscopy, stool assays, and medical imaging, vary in their level of efficacy. This study will expound on the several diagnostic techniques of Clostridium difficile with regards to their effectiveness towards its assessment and treatment. Several indicators may lead indicate that one has the Clostridium difficile infection.
Common symptoms include excessive recurrent dehydration, fever, tenderness in the lower abdomen, fever in some cases, general body discomfort (malaise), cramping abdominal pain, and diarrhoea that might be watery or in rare cases, bloody. Further suspicion might arise if these symptoms occur in patients who have received antibiotic treatment within three months’ time. Additionally, patients who are hospitalized also stand higher chances of contracting the Clostridium difficile infection.
Finally, the diagnosis for the infection might be necessary if a hospitalized patient has recurring diarrhoea for about forty-eight hours. Although most of the mentioned cases are mostly within hospital settings, Clostridium difficile is also common away from medical centres. The risk of infection by Clostridium difficile depends on two factors; the exposure to the bacteria and exposure to antibiotics. The occurrence of Clostridium difficile is highest in infants, accounting for about 84.4%. Residents in long-term care facilities come second with about 57% occurrence, while occurrence in healthy adults accounts for about 5-15%.
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