As Moses was climbing down the mountain, he found the Israelites doing all sorts of immoral things and worshipping idols that made him angry and dropped and broke the commandments that were written on stone pillars. Moses was very angry and destroyed the idol. He went back to the mountain to repent on behalf of the children of Israelites and after forty days, God allowed him to engrave the commandments on rock tablets. When he went down and found that the children of the Israelites had put their faith in God and the foundation was made.
God had good plans for the Israelites and he wanted a pure lineage to be a given the promised land as only them would be able to defeat Satan and liberate human beings from sins2. The stone tablets on which the commandments were written on symbolized the Messiah who would come to bridge the relationship between God and men so as to reunite them again. For the relationship between God and the Israelites to be restored, Moses had instructions to build a portable temple that would be used as a place of worship3.
It would also be an illustrator of the transition from the old life to the new in the Promised Land. The temple would have an outer sanctuary, the holy place, the holiest place. The commandment tablet would be placed in the holiest place. From Mount Sinai, the journey to Canaan was not an easy task. They had to pass through inhospitable deserts. Many of them regretted leaving Egypt. They wished for the life of slavery that they had back there. Moses was having a difficult task to organize them to defeat the Canaanite enemies as well as establishing a nation.
Most of them had lost the vision and faith on the Promised Land. With the lack of vision, they had lost all power to complete nation-building mission. The complaining was driving Moses insane and he had to come up with a way to separate the Israelites as most of them were very negative and wanted to go back to Egypt as the felt they could not defeat the current occupants of Canaan. To separate between the people that would enter the Promised Land, the Israelites had to go through a period of indemnity in the challenge where they were deeply tried in the desert including Moses.
Only the new generation was allowed to go to the Promised Land.
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