Being exposed to radioactive material in large doses is harmful. For the safety of the people of the metropolitan where these plants have been set up, it is important to have safety mechanisms in place that are effective and efficient ones. The IAEA is responsible for the establishment and deployment of detection programs for identifying any lack of safety measures against the radioactive material. Many countries of the world, like, Finland, Sweden, Canada, and France, have adopted models to produce nuclear energy in a safe way. On the other hand, Chernobyl and Three Mile Island encountered accidents from their nuclear reactors.
Therefore, it is viable that lessons should be learned from past accidents and to analyze the benefits or hazards of nuclear power. For instance, in the accident of Three Mile Island’ s nuclear reactor, the lack of proper training to operate the reactor and major flaws in its design were found to be responsible for the accident (IAEA, 2010). Therefore, when constructing or building a strong nuclear power plant, it is imperative that such design issues and safety issues are taken care of.
The next significant challenge in a nuclear reactor is the containment of nuclear waste. Isotopes have the ability to keep on multiplying and growing. The normal life of an isotope before its decay is 100,000 years. Due to this prolonged life span and its highly radioactive nature, it is necessary that it should be kept away at safe levels where there is no connection with human beings or living organisms. Possible ways to isolate isotopes is to develop layers upon layers that act as barriers underground.
Furthermore, it is kept in water pools for 20 to 40 years as water helps the isotopes remain cool down and saves the environment from its radioactivity. With the increase in the aging of nuclear waste, the intensity of radioactivity gradually decreases where it comes in a position that it can be safely stored in a dry facility. In the dry condition, nuclear waste further decays and makes it easy to handle it.
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