The Paperwork Reduction Act (PRA) of 1995 was concerned about the management of Information in the Federal Government through the media of Paper. Basically, it directed that government “ minimize the paperwork burden” and “ maximize the utility of information disseminated by or for the Federal Government” . Other concerns of the Act included privacy and confidentiality of information, access to information and security of information as included in the Computer security Act of 1987. In particular, the PRA of 1987 directed that “ information technology should be acquired, used, and managed to improve performance of agency missions, including the reduction of information collection burdens on the public” .
The Clinger-Cohen Act of February 10, 1996, also known as the Information Technology Management Act, , in addition to updating and amending previous “ data processing” policies, defined “ Information Technology” and created the office of “ Chief Information Officer” to aid the head of each Agency and department in facilitating the implementation of the CCA act. The CCA spelled out in details of how information systems and information security were to be managed in federal agencies. Details of this comprehensive act will be treated later in this thesis. The Executive Order 13011 of July 17, 1996, issued during the Clinton administration ---amplified the Clinger-Cohen Act.
It recognized that “ a government that works better and costs less requires efficient and effective information systems” . It directed that information technology management be refocused “ to support directly the strategic missions” of the Agencies. It created the Chief Information Officers Council (CIO Council) comprising the CIOs and deputy CIOs of 28 Agencies, tasked to coordinate the implementation of the Clinger-Cohen Act on Information technology Management. OMB Circular A-130— which focused on Management of Federal Information systems, first published in June 1993 was a forerunner of the Clinger-Cohen Act of 1996.
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