Mamdani believes that the whole concept of R2P has been misused by the powerful nations, to unleash terror on the poorer nations of the world. As a result, he feels that the concept of R2P has to stand for Right to Punish and not for Responsibility to Protect. But Evans’ is totally defending this concept. It very clearly is seen that Mamdani is giving a clear message about the concept of humanitarian intervention, which has become a very complex issue for the various countries of the world, to make a clear demarcation as to the cases where they need to intervene.
But Walzer is very much certain that, only when the situation arises wherein there is a huge humanitarian crisis like genocide being committed on a population, that an external force or country should intervene to bring about peace and stability. Evans’ is very much certain that genocide has taken place in African countries like Rwanda, Uganda, and Sudan and is asking the International humanitarian intervention in the affairs of these states. Hence the concept of Responsibility to Protect can very well be applied to these countries by the world powers to prevent and put down the mass atrocities taking place in these countries.
As per the concept of Responsibility to Protect there were two agreed principles, one in which the state had the primary responsibility to protect its population against atrocities. The other, wherein the case when the state is unable or is helpless in putting down a revolution or mass atrocities being committed on its population, then the international community can very well take the decision of intervening, using the concept of Responsibility to Protect.
But has R2P been applied prudently by the International community is the question asked by Mamdani? According to this concept, there are three responsibilities that are being entrusted to the international community, which include the responsibility to prevent, react and finally to rebuild. But the question really is, as to how far these three elements laid out in the concept, are being followed by the western countries more particularly by the US currently? How far this has been able to control the human rights violations and also enabled the states, to intervene in the humanitarian crisis across the world is yet to be seen?
Though the concept is quite attractive and can effectively be used to check human atrocities that are being committed, it is rightly pointed out by critics, to see the practicality and effectiveness of such a system.
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