The existing dissonance in a manner that reduces inconsistencies; secondly, dissonance may also be alleviated by a reduction of the importance ascribed to a specific or a number of dissonances. Consequently, dissonance may be alleviated by simply increasing the number of cognitive constants whose values outweigh the values ascribed to dissonance beliefs (Festinger 1964). Research has also shown that dissonance is mostly experienced in scenarios where an individual may be faced with a challenge of making a choice between his/her actions and the existing inconsistent beliefs. Scenarios of greatest dissonance are usually experienced when a person is exposed to two equally attractive dissonances. Assuming a case where a group of pupils is motivated to undertake an assignment after being promised a certain reward or a gift from their teachers or even parents.
In such a scenario, the performance of the pupils tends to increase due to the foreseen rewards from their teachers. In respect to this example, B.F Skinner describes operant conditioning as a way of learning that is facilitated by perceived benefits or rewards. Consequently, methods such as punishments may also trigger learning among various sets of people hence are factors that influence operant conditioning. There are various components of operant conditioning which are inclusive of; punishments (negative and positive punishments) and reinforcement which may also exist negatively and in a positive dimension. The social learning theory was formulated by Albert Bandura; this theory places great emphasis on the pertinence of observing as well as the aspect of modeling emotional, attitudes as well as the behavioral actions of others.
That is, human learning is highly influenced and affected observationally through a process of modeling thereby allowing an individual to acquire ideas of human behaviors which are later coded and utilized as a standard to guide one’ s action (Bandura 1977).
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