It is important to develop comprehension strategies that would help struggling readers with reciprocal teaching, think aloud’s, DR TAs, flash cards and so on. Biancarosa (2004) has recommended fifteen elements that would help to improve the middle and high school literacy achievements and these are recommended for arts content areas. The elements are: direct and comprehension instruction; effective instructional principles that are embedded in content; motivation and self directed learning; text based collaborative learning along with strategic tutoring. Other elements are diverse texts; intensive writing; a technology component; continuous formative assessment of students and extended time for literacy.
The remaining elements are professional development; ongoing summative assessment of students and programs; teacher’s exams; leadership and a comprehensive and coordinated literacy program. The author has recommended that in arts classes and for tutoring of students with learning disabilities, the program designers can use these elements and flexibly attempt different combinations to find the best program. Any combination needs to have three specific elements such as summative assessment, formative assessment and professional development. Yardley (2000) speaks of new tests and measures being brought into schools for testing of children.
The existing standardised tests evoke dread and fear among students and this increases the number of children dropping out. Merrow (2003) speaks of how phonetics or the manner of speaking and pronouncing words needs special methods of teaching and learning. Vacca (2004) speaks of the challenges that teachers face in arts classes when they have to bring students and textbooks together. The author notes that merely expecting students to learn by rote content areas of arts classes is next to impossible. Children, especially those in the lower grades have to be taught to imagine and they have to learn how to think.
The socio cultural context for teaching and learning that happens is related to the dynamic interactions that would occur in classroom settings. Students would be able to understand the dynamic interactions that have to take place between the text and the reader and the instructional activities. Slavin (1988) says that simply put, in arts classes there is nothing like ‘2+2=4’. Many of the topic areas are imaginative and thee author has instructional strategies to plan the core text lessons along with activities for during, before and after reading activities.
Please type your essay title, choose your document type, enter your email and we send you essay samples