The geographical exclusion saw races that were different from white Americans secluded in one part of the United States. Their access to basic amenities was put under vigilance and control by law (Brilliant 125). The effect of abject racial discrimination based on color became evident in when Supreme Court decided on a case involving Bhagat Singh Thind in 1923. The court had changed the definition of white to Caucasian but cited historical and anthropological reasons to brush Bhagat argument that he was Caucasian. This shows that the legal body did not want to admit out rightly it favored whites over any other race.
United States divided immigrants as desirable and undesirable based on color following Bhagat’s case in 1923 (Kim 1106). A number of the citizenship applications were revoked if the desired immigrant was in marriage involving an Asian American. They would lose their citizenship for good and expatriation right away as marrying an alien was inadmissible according to Immigration act of 1924. Asian Americans could not own land in United States United legal system in California and Washington passed strict laws that prohibited ‘aliens ineligible for citizenship’ from owning or leasing land.
The Californian Alien Land Law of 1913 saw California permitted immigrants of African descent and white to lease land and perform a wide range of agricultural activities they felt fit (History-world. org). The law that became approved by both assembly and Senate through a majority vote left out the Chinese, Indian, Koreans, and Japanese farmers. Washington was not left behind for it was motivated through English Common Law to pass restrictive laws to any Asian immigrant living United States.
The restrictive laws became part of Washington statutes that took effect as early as 1886. Another law that restricted Asian Americans further on land lease and ownership was approved in 1920. The Alien Land Law formed in 1920 made it clear that aliens did not have the right to transfer land through sale or lease to Asian Americans. According to United States laws implemented before 1920, they were ineligible for citizenship and could not even use their children’s names to hide guardianship for the land (History-world. org). If the government suspected or found out that an Asian alien owned land or an Asian alien provided the money used to buy the land, the property would be confiscated immediately to become the property of the state.
The aforementioned laws were unconstitutional and punitive because they gave white Americans undue power over the Asian American immigrants.
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