HOMELAND SECURITY –RESPONSE & RECOVERY What are the key success factors in managing large, multi-agency and multi-judicial response programs? It is very difficult to achieve success in disasters management programs especially in a large, multi-agency and multi-judicial area. There are lots of factors in which we should consider to maximize our probability of success. In the book of Miskel (2006), he mentioned that in disaster management, one should not thought of it to be as a structure but rather as a system of programs. . . a system in the sense that it consist of a number of independent elements that must work together to achieve common outputs – such as rapid alleviation of suffering by the victims of a natural disaster, industrial accident or terrorist attack” (p. 1).
Thus, he mentioned of three essential independent elements: namely the private sectors like Red Cross; state and local agencies; and federal agencies should coordinate and collaborate with each other to achieve the desired result which is to have a more efficient and effective disaster response programs. There were scenarios before in United States of America in which the Federal government only aids local states in financial matters alone (p. 2) and in which Miskel mentioned that in a typical disaster, the government plays no operational role –a meaning they just support them in terms of money reimbursement (p3).
Therefore, the first thing that the primary elements should do first is to coordinate with one another. The three major elements (private sectors, state and local government, and federal government) must contribute and work together to achieve a better result and achieve the goals of quick-reducing suffering from timely and effective coordination.
The National response system (NRS), under the Federal government, endorses this so-call Incident Command System (ICS) or Unified Command (UC) as an effective tool of managing all emergency response of incidents for multi-jurisdictional situation. This brings together local government, the federal government and the Responsible Party (RP) in coordination to retort in oil spills and/or other harmful chemical substances that can endanger to the lives of its constituents. Aside from this, they should implement programs that will aid the citizens in times of calamities or disasters.
The Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) Program, under the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is a tool in helping the people through its advocacy in giving seminars and education to prepare themselves whenever unexpected things happened.
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