Traditional theory viewed knowledge as derived from the activity of describing the world. It did not actually have a comprehensive understanding of the world of why it is as it is since traditional theory had a limited prescribed view of rationality and significantly lacked the self-reflective application of reason (Cox 1988, p. 128 & Linklater 2006, p. Within these facets, traditional theory for Horkheimer viewed the world as a set of ready-made facts awaiting discovery through the application of scientific methodology. Contrarily, critical theory is but an intellectual and practical effort which views events as part of their social genesis reason (Cox 1988, p.
That is to say, events are not independent of their social location but are social and historical products that are partly determined by the collective action of human beings within the framework of society (Hoffman 1987, p. Critical theory admits a change in the sense that it does not accept the prevailing ideas, actions, and social condition as unchanging or immutable, neither does it accept that existing rule of society, the boundaries of work and knowledge as natural and so inevitable (Maclean 2012, p. Society is, however, understood from an outside position without rejecting that itself is but a product of society.
In the agreement, Linklater (2006, p. 278) admits that critical theory stands opposed to empirical claims about the social world that take the assumption that the existing structures are immutable. Under such, critical theory seeks to ascertain the prospects for a new form of community where every individual and group(s) attains higher levels of freedom (Maclean 2012, p. In this light, its orientation towards the existing constraints is always shaped by the Marxian theory that all that is solid will eventually melt into air and by the belief that human beings can make more of their history under conditions of their choosing (Linklater2006, p. The modern-day politics is indeed characterized by exploitation driven by selfish interest.
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