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EU Integration and Citizenship Law

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Further enlargement is a necessity for EU because it would serve to strengthen the Union’ s capability to maintain the balance of peace in the continent1. As the Union counts more member states, it becomes stronger in the process. The earliest nucleus of EU was composed of Belgium, Denmark, France, Italy, Ireland, UK, Luxembourg, and Netherlands. They were joined by Greece in 1981 and Portugal and Spain in 1986. Austria, Finland, and Sweden followed in 1995. The year 2003 saw the accession of a group consisting of Cypress, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia and Slovenia, while Croatia and Turkey started negotiating for their membership in 2005.

By latest count, EU has 25 member states with a combined population of 460 million, which represents 7 percent of total world population. That’ s more than the combined populations of the US, which has 290 million, and Japan, with 130 million. Probably because of the advantages of enlargement, EU has also consistently out-performed the US and Japan in the economic sphere. In 2004, EU accounted for 31 percent of the world GDP, as against 29 percent for the US and 11 percent for Japan.

Of the world’ s flow of FDI, 40 percent also comes from the Union, as against 23 percent and 4 percent for the US and Japan, respectively. Moreover, EU provides 54 percent of worldwide ODA and accounts for 18 percent of the world trade in goods and a similar percentage of trade in services. 2 In organizational structure, EU is significantly different from the International Government Organization and the unitary state in many important respects. Both an IGO and a unitary state are characterized by an almost complete imbalance on the extent to which territorial and non-territorial components are found at the central level.

Like a federal state, EU embodies a certain balance between organizational principles but unlike a federal state, the non-territorial elements of EU don’ t seem to have taken any precedence over territorial ones so far3.

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