The preference should be given to the right of the woman, instead of unborn child. Pro abortionists also argue that parents are in the best position to decide about the future of their life and family, and therefore their decision should not be questioned or challenged when it comes to abortion. The main difference of opinion in both the schools of thought arises from the definition of a human life. Anti abortionist argue that a fertilized egg is a human being and therefore terminating it is equal to termination of a human life (Gutting, 1).
On the other end, pro abortionists argue that human life is not achieved until a child takes up a human form, usually after several weeks of the pregnancy. This is the crux of the debate between the two schools of thought and it is not easily possible to take a side. There is no consensus as to what is human life and therefore this debate is yet to be resolved. Utilitarianism is a well known ethical theory forwarded by John Stuart Mill which argues that the morality of an action can be determined by analyzing the consequences of that action on the majority members of the society.
If an action yields maximum happiness or benefit for a maximum number of people then the action is morally permissible. Utilitarianism is a form of consequentalist ethical theory where morality of the action is determined by the consequences of those actions and nothing else. Utilitarianism determines the wrongness or the rightness by evaluating the action on the basis of the ‘good’ or ‘benefit’ it causes to the overall society or the maximum number of people involved. Utilitarian ethics ignore universal standards or any other standards for evaluating an action and place all weight on the consequences of the action and the positive or negative effect on the action on all parties involved.
Utilitarianism does not argue for the individual good of the people but takes into account the maximum benefit of the most number of people involved. This is why utilitarianism is so popular. The good of everyone is taken into consideration while determining the morality of an action. The ease with which utilitarianism can be applied to many situations is also a reason of its popularity. Some philosophers like Peter Singer argue that the issue of abortion can be resolved using utilitarianism (Singer, 135).
As mentioned above, utilitarian school of ethics evaluates actions based solely on the consequences of
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