The donor can be a family member or a known individual. Donation in the family line to some is considered unethical as under normal circumstances it would be incest. However, it is great as it maintains a genetic link and helps the recipients to avoid long waiting lists. Mixing of sperms and eggs between family members poses a risk of disorders for the children but it is legal (HFEA, 2012). The law argues that the most important thing in upbringing of a child is a loving and caring environment not sexual orientation (Waaldijk, 2004). ICSI In ICSI, a single sperm is selected to be injected directly to the egg.
This is recommended by the clinic if one person has low sperm count. Genetic tests are required before the process to avoid passing genetic disorders to the child (HFEA, 2012). For same sex male couples IVF is the better option since several sperms are given the option to fertilize the egg. In case both partners’ sperms are infertile, then an ICSI would be advisable. Previous Legal Positions on Same Sex Parenting The law that relates to same sex parenting is complicated and diverse.
In areas concerning family law for example, access to assisted conception and surrogacy arrangements the power is retained by the states (Waaldijk, 2004). For many years, it has been a common phenomenon for lesbian couples to get pregnant through alternative measures like using donor sperm for insemination (Robertson, 1995). Same sex men on the other hand, have been forced to rely on adoption, but still it has to be indirect as one partner poses as a single straight man rather than a homosexual (Greenfeld, 2007).
However, this is changing as more men are learning that they can have their own biological children through gestational surrogates and egg donors (Robertson, 2004). There is still limited publication on same sex male couples using this assisted reproductive treatment to have families. As the societal views change, same sex male couples have been able to embark on the parenthood journey (Nachtigall et al. , 1997). Historically, there have been negative societal attitudes towards same sex males as well as inadequate physicians willing to treat them thus fewer such couples have had access to fertility services (Greenfeld, 2007).
The world health organization says that all couple has a basic right to freely and responsibly make a decision on the timing, spacing and number of children they want to have as well as be able to access information and means to do so (Waaldijk, 2004).
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