Patients diagnosed with diabetes usually undergo various psychological disorders. For instance, the type 1 diabetics suffer from depression three times more often than non-diabetics. Over 15% of people with diabetes have severe depression (“Depression”). Recent findings have suggested that depression in diabetic patients is associated with the reduced cortical thickness in a pre-frontal region. Such neurological changes may be a result of a long-lasting reduced blood sugar control. Moreover, diabetic patients frequently complain about eating disorders, particularly females. It is believed that a reduced appetite and polyuria are being in a positive correlation with glycemia levels.
In order to verify a diagnosis of diabetes, it is necessary to perform a glucose tolerance test (GTT) and a blood glucose measurement. For reliable results, GTT must be performed strictly in the morning and on an empty stomach. For the first time, a blood glucose level is measured fasting. The measurement is repeated in one and two hours after the intake of 75 grams of glucose in 300 ml water. Urine glucose concentration is measured before a drink and in one and two hours (Watkins).
However, abnormal results do not necessarily mean diabetes. As the studies showcase, many patients with impaired glucose tolerance spontaneously return to normal levels. The diagnosis of diabetes is confirmed when: 1. The blood glucose level is at/above 11.1 mmol/L in two hours after a glucose drink. 2. Fasting glycaemia is at/above 7.0 mmol/L. 3. Glycated hemoglobin at/above 6.5. Since the type 1 diabetes cannot be cured, the main objectives of its treatment are to relieve the symptoms, minimize the long-term complications and improve the quality of life. Diabetic patients can benefit greatly from their lifestyle modification.
A proper exercising, a healthy diet, and no smoking significantly contribute to a higher quality of life. However, insulin administration remains irreplaceable in the treatment of the disease. Untreated juvenile diabetes leads to coma, frequently from the aforementioned diabetic ketoacidosis. Cerebral edema that results from ketoacidosis is an adverse complication that is highly lethal, especially in children. Nowadays, global suppliers like Novo Nordisk or Sanofi-Aventis offer a wide range of insulins with different duration of its action time. With a rise of genetic reconstruction techniques, more efficient synthesized insulins have replaced the original one and cattle insulin almost entirely.
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