Throughout the twentieth century, there was a significant increase in criminal justice research, which prompted the development of criminal justice policy in western nations. This occurred particularly in the years after the Second World War when many nations were focusing on constructing and sustaining a criminal justice policy (Lacey, p5, 2007). Reports claimed that Britain once declared that it had a proud tradition of criminal justice. The tradition basis was the trial by jury, the principle of equality, rule of law and the presumption of innocence before the law (Faulkner, p4, 2010). In the twentieth century, the nation sentencing policies were mainly criminal oriented and founded on a rehabilitative model of individualized sentencing.
However, the national crime rate sharply rose in the beginning in the 1960s. On the other hand, there was an interpretation that, those evaluations of rehabilitative interventions were as showing that “ nothing works” and these allegations spoiled the therapeutic criminal and juvenile justice policy and practice (Lipsey et al, p7, 2010). During the Progressive Era, which is around the first two decades of the 20th Century, the juvenile court was born.
During this time, visionaries aspired to reinvent, reform government, and make it work honestly, well, and responsibly (Rubin, p1, n. d). Although the youthful criminals were not new in the early nineteenth century, the legal debate was new after the development of a particular notion of such a criminal (Emsley, p3, 2005). In addition, the industrial developments raised concerns regarding working conditions of children and appreciation of their special needs through employment controls and the establishment of reformatories, detention centres and industrial schools by the private charitable division.
These developments raised a focus on the children’ s protection (Liston, p3 n. d,). Moreover, there was the development of penal-welfarism a course towards rehabilitation instead of punishment and the planning of social and educative structures onto the criminal justice organization (D’ Cruze et al, p10, 2000).
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