Modernization as coming to be viewed as a method of social scientific construction of reforming environmental practices and policies at various levels of the modern world. In this regard, ecological modernization focuses on how social actors, institutions, and individuals can meld environmental issues in daily activities. The overall result is that environmental concerns are becoming a focal point in relations and institutionalization together with modern values, cultures and daily conduct. “ … is emerging as a fashionable new term to describe recent changes in environmental policy and politics. Its growing popularity derives in part from the suggestive power of its combined appeal to notions of development and modernity, and to ecological critique.
One of the most significant aspects of this emerging trend is the emphasis it places on narrowing the gap between economic interests and environmental depletion. Three movements may be said to have contributed to the emergence of ecological modernization. First, the published a report, Our Common Future, popularly known as the Brundtland Report in 1987.12 The Brundtland Report aimed at putting the protection of the environment together with economic development on the forefront of both political and public agendas on a global level.
The World Summit on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 can be described as the second movement promoting ecological modernization. The summit emphasized that biodiversity loss, climatic changes, desertification, and water shortages were common global concerns. In the years that followed it was difficult for “ anyone on the planet” to claim that they were unaware of the environmental consequences of industrialization and modernization in general and that there was a dire need to make changes at virtually all levels of civilization.
The third ecological modernization movement can be attributed to Al Gore’ s publication of An Inconvenient Truth: The Crisis of Global Warning in 2006.15 Gore’ s treatise highlighted the reality of the physical destruction of the environment and argued that anyone who cared about the environment would take responsibility for it by either producing or consumer products or services that were environmentally friendly.
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