Other hand suggests that CRM is an important safety tool and efficiency management is focused on the operations to proactively apply human factors so that the performance of crew can be improved. CRM is a system that emphasizes on how the attitudes and behaviors of crew members can affect safety of an aircraft. CRM puts more focus on adapting the crew as the main standard unit of training that than on the more technically competent individuals. CRM also utilizes active training where the participants are encouraged to participate in the learning process rather being provided with lectures.
CRM training also aims at imparting teamwork and leadership skills. The training values the inputs of members while preserving the chain of command and authority. Lastly, CRM provides crews and other individuals with an opportunity that can enable them review and analyze their performance so that they can make appropriate improvements. In 1950s, commercial aviation ushered in a new era where aircraft began travelling faster and farther due to the widespread use of jet engine for airliners. The system and operational procedures of aircraft also grew more complex.
The aircraft designers, pilots and engineers were not aware of the initial risks that were accompanied with the increased complexity of aircraft. There were increased aircraft accidents and they were greatly published (Salas, Wilson, Burke and Wightman, 2006). During this time, the main causes of aircraft were known to be mechanical and technical errors though majority of the accidents were reported as errors caused by the pilots. For the survival of the aviation industry and its recognition, there was need to mitigate these errors (Wiener, 1995). Consequently, the introduction of electronic warning systems and improved aircraft equipment significantly reduced the number of accidents, and in some cases, addressed the problems that arose from human error.
The technological solutions coupled with flight simulators enabled aircrews to significantly reduce the degree of human error so that they could easily manage errors that resulted from the human activities. According to Chang and Wang (2010), crew resource management and training in U. can be traced back to 1979 during workshops organized by National Aeronautical and Space Administration. During the meeting, it was outlined that human errors formed the majority of aircraft accidents and especially due to failures in decision making, interpersonal
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