Due to the frequent and extensive distribution of WNV, it’ s the most frequent cause of arboviral disease in more than two-thirds of the United States of counties since it’ s widely distributed. The infection of humans is witnessed every month of the year with intense infection witnessed in winter. The surveillance system for WNV consists of epidemiology surveillance and environmental surveillance and they work complementarily. Epidemiological surveillance utilizes WNV human disease to quantify disease burden while environmental surveillance monitors the local WNV activity in vector and non-human vertebrate hosts. In addition to this, epidemiological surveillance also detects and quantifies alternative routes of WNV transmission to humans thus helping drawing the preventive measures.
WNV is mostly transmitted to humans through the bite of infected mosquitoes with rare cases of person to person transmission reported. Person to person transmission mainly occurs through infected blood products or solid organ transplantation, thus routine screening of such products is necessary to avoid further transmission. About 70% of human WNV infections are subclinical or asymptomatic with most symptomatic persons experiencing acute systemic febrile illness associated with a headache, myalgia and gastrointestinal symptoms (CDC, 2013).
The objective of larval mosquito control is to reduce the mosquito populations before they become adults and pose serious health hazards. This is an efficient IPM program aimed at managing mosquitos from their breeding sites and killing them at larval stages so as to reduce the adult populations before they reach their infectious stage. This method is effective in controlling young mosquitoes but it must be accompanied by measures of controlling adult mosquitoes as well in order to achieve meaningful progress. Caution should be betaken since larval control alone cannot be able to stop the WNV outbreaks once the virus has started causing infections and this is the reason it should be accompanied by adulticides control.
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