Management is the act of controlling, organizing, planning, and influencing resources and workers in an organization (Tompkins, 2005, p. 107). Planning deals with setting objectives while organizing is the act of arranging resources and workers. Controlling, on the other hand, deals with ensuring that jobs are performed as desired. Warren Bennis differentiates management from leadership by arguing that it is the act of doing things right. Warren argues that while leaders do the right things, managers do the things right (Saiti, 2012, p. 118). Efficient managers possess characteristics that include leadership, excellent communication skills, confidence, creativity, and human attributes.
Since managers need to possess leadership skills, they must also acquire the desirable qualities of superior leaders, which include integrity and confidence among others. Excellent communication skills enable managers to carry out their function efficiently because their functions mainly deal with human beings (Carte, 2004, p. 5). Theories of management The theories of management include scientific hypothesis by Fredrick Taylor, administration by Elton Mayol, human relations by Hawthorne, and Bureaucracy by Max Weber. The theory of scientific management argues that managers should break down their activities into manageable tasks.
The researcher also argues that effective management involves training of employees and assigning them tasks that suit their skills and qualifications. Managers should allocate work equally between themselves and workers, and they should determine the most efficient ways of conducting business. Taylor argues that scientific managers aim at achieving efficiency in their organizations (Tompkins, 2005, p. 112). The human relations theory developed by Mayol argues that efficient management is achieved when workers are involved in the process. The hypothesis postulates that the productivity of workers increases when they work in groups, thus, it encourages managers to formulate teams in their organizations.
According to Elton Mayol, managers who fail to employ teamwork also fail to achieve the goals of their companies (Goulet, Jefferson, & Szwed, 55).
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