It is quite essential to state that the research design of a scientific study refers to a broader strategy or plan to conduct a study to solve a problem. It outlines the procedures the researcher will take in integrating various components of the study in order to achieve the overall research objective. A research design is important in research because it is the blueprint for the entire study (Barry, & Wentzel, 2006). A research design identifies the type of study, the research question, research variables, and the research hypothesis.
There are six main types of research designs namely, descriptive, experimental, meta-analytic, review, correlation, and semi-experimental research designs (Pettit, Green, Grover, Schatte, & Morgan, 2011). The choice of a particular research type of research design depends on the specific problem that the research seeks to address scientifically. The two studies identified above employ the same research design to achieve their main objectives. Both researchers use a descriptive research design with a naturalistic observation approach. In the first research, Uslu collected first hand data on about 500 students in high school.
This process laid ground for a descriptive research strategy that sought to analyze peer pressure and efficacy in youths. Leslie and Wendy also used naturalistic observation to study how religious values can affect peer pressure by basing their research on 220 students. The choice for this research design for both studies resonates well with the research question each of them is trying to resolve. In Uslu’ s study, for instance, the researcher was trying to harmonize the relationship between peer pressure and different kinds of self-efficacy among adolescents such as social, academic and emotional self-efficacy (Usiu, 2013).
Leslie and Wendy, on the other hand, were trying to determine the role that religious values and belief systems can help address issues of peer pressure among the youths.
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