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Conceptual Approaches to Learning

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Conceptual Approaches to Learning of College Conceptual Approaches to Learning There are many different approaches to learning and many experts that suggest that learning develops in different ways. Most children learn in different ways, depending on what they are learning. There are many approaches that teachers and other experts take when approaching learning, and three approaches will be discussed in this paper: the cognitive approach, behavioral approach and neuroscience approach to learning. Cognitive Approach to Learning The cognitive approach to learning suggests that learners rely on their five senses to learn. This means that it is important for them to listen, touch, read or experience what they area learning (Oracle Education Foundation, 1999).

The individual learner will actively process the information they receive as they receive it. In other words, the information they received comes into the brain and is synthesized by the individual as they make sense of it. Cognitive learning can help the learner understand a task when it cannot be understood through a series of steps. The cognitive process will provide the structure that steps in other types of tasks would provide (Jordan, 2005).

As an example, in a classroom of students there will be several students learning in different ways. Perhaps Alicia looks as though she is not listening, however, she is thinking about the information she is receiving. As she thinks about the things her teacher is saying to her, she is writing down notes or drawing in a way that helps her retain the information. Later, she will ask the teacher to show her what she is talking about to make sure she has everything correct. Behavioral Approach to Learning In contrast to the cognitive approach, the behavioral approach sees learning as the process of changing behavior.

The behaviorists looked at how the environment would influence learning and how this process affected the individual (Huitt and Hummel, 2006). The behaviorists believed that the only time that learning took place was when the learner had actually changed their behavior in some way. Those teachers who use the behavioral approach to learning will most likely do several things that will condition the individual to understand what they are doing.

They also believe that we as humans are conditioned by the world around us. We behave in a way that our conditioning has created. We do not behave through a conscious act, but rather through a reaction to a stimulus that either rewards or punishes us. The teacher might use tokens or stickers to work with a student through the behavioral method. The stickers or tokens would become the reward for giving the teacher the desired behavior (Ford, 2009). The Neuroscience Approach to Learning The neuroscience approach to learning is most closely compared to the cognitive approach to learning because it involves the mind, the nervous system, perception, memory and consciousness.

The neuroscience of learning also depends on changes that the neurons in the brain make in order to trigger learning and memory (Pan, 2005). This approach links the brain with the "observations about cognitive behavior" (Oktar, 2006) with the physical process that also help in the learning process. In looking at this approach to learning, the idea of consciousness has to be discussed. Experts have found that some areas of the brain have more to do with consciousness than others, and that consciousness depends on how an individuals brain actually functions.

Each person has a way to open to their own consciousness but not the consciousness of other people (Oktar, 2006). When looking at neuroscience and behavior, it actually supports behavior in that the brain helps the individual process their behavior. It also helps an individual process the cognitive aspects of their learning (Oktar, 2006). Lieberman (2000) also suggests that people rely on intuition when they approach the world.

Instead of learning through the environment per se, but the individual uses their intuition to understand whatever it is they are learning. The example is given of an individual who enters a romantic relationship. In it, they would use their intuition to decide whether they should date the individual. According to Lierberman, on a cognitive level, the individual is engaging in implicit learning, which is the type of learning an individual does without even thinking about it. This means that cognitive learning and neuroscience work together to bring into an individuals consciousness the understanding of what they are learning.

Generally, the neuroscience approach to learning is more involved with the biological aspects of learning involving the brain, neurons and neuro-transmitters. The cognitive approach and the behavioral approach are enhanced by the neuroscience approach because they are brought together in the learning process. References Ford, P. (1 November 2009). Behavioral approach. Blog. Retrieved from http: //paulford. com/behavioural-approach-to-learning/ Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2006). An overview of the behavioral perspective. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http: //www. edpsycinteractive. org /topics/behsys/behsys. html Jordan, L.

(2005). An introduction to cognitive strategies. Special Connections. Retrieved from http: //wwwspecialconnections. ku. edu/cgi- bin/cgiwrap/specconn/main. php? cat=instruction§ion=cs/main Lieberman, M.D. (2000). Intuition: a social cognitive neuroscience approach. Psychological Bulletin, 126, (1), 109-137. doi: 10.1037//0033- 2909.126.1.109 Oktar, N. (2006). Theory of Neuroscience. Journal of Neurological Sciences (Turkish), 23 (3), 155-158. Retrieved from http: //www. biology- online. org/articles/theory_neuroscience. html Oracle Education Foundation. (1999). Cognitive processes. Think Quest. Retrieved from http: //library. thinkquest. org/26618/en- 5.5.3=cognitive%20learning. htm Pan, A. (2005). Neuroscience of learning. PowerPoint Presentation. Retrieved from pan. intrasun. tcnj. edu/. ../Neuroscience%20of%20Learning. ppt

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