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Compare and contrast immigration policies in two or more countries. Which factors explain the variations

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In addition, while the main factor influencing immigration in the past was economic, which remains one of the major reasons, other factors have arisen in the last few decades, including individuals looking for political asylum. Immigration for family reasons has also become a major factor influencing immigration levels, of which at least 70% of immigrants in Europe have moved for family-related reasons (Allport & Ferguson, 2013: p15). Labour migration is also recognised as another major reason causing the rising levels of immigration, especially since these immigrants continue to play essential roles in the workforce of major OECD countries. Freeman (1995: p884) approaches the issue of immigration policy from the liberal democracy perspective, noting that immigration politics in such democracies are similar in that they are widely inclusive and expansionist in nature.

He identifies three groups of nation-states that display unique immigration policy modes. The first group involves the English-speaking societies where immigration was central to their founding like Australia, the US, and Canada. These states mostly favour expansionary immigration policies; while they are also immune to major swings in policy direction. The second groups of states are those with guest worker and post-colonial migrations, such as France, the UK, and Japan, where immigration happened after the countries were already established, specifically after WWII, introducing significant minority groups (Freeman, 1995: p885).

These countries have had to deal with dilemmas on how to integrate immigrants with a limited state capacity. The third groups of countries are the new immigration countries like Spain, Italy, Portugal, and Greece that were initially sources of immigrants. However they now have to cope with reverse immigration pressures under crisis conditions.

Overall, the author asks whether it is possible for liberal states to control unwanted migration (Freeman, 1995: p885). Joppke (1998: p270) picks up from this argument, exploring why liberal states actually continue to accept unwanted migration and noting that the growing gap between the reality of expansionist immigration and the intent of restrictionist policy. There are several reasons why this is the case, including a decline in state sovereignty, which has resulted in declined

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