In the modern world, the stability of a country is based on intelligent, competitive and capable individuals. A country that is striving to sustain economically with good margins needs to focus on its youth. If the government focuses on children of 0-8 years, then it would be easier to direct the children to the correct path in their career. Comparison of Policy in Italy with that of England: The constitution of the Italian republic assigns the legislative rights to the senate of elected members by the people and the executive rights to the Government.
But the Government can also exercise the legislative powers, under the delegation of the senate, due to some necessity. In Italy, the state, having acknowledged the importance of pre-school education (preparatory school to primary education), took over the complete responsibility in 1968 with the Law no. 444. With Law no. 444, pre-school, with the passing of time, by gaining educational value and didactical autonomy, became a part of the educational system. Currently Law no. 53 of 28 Mar 2003 and delegated decree no. 59 of 19 Feb 2004 provide for the full introduction of pre-schools in the education system.
Due to the anticipated enrollment in pre-schools, all efforts are now directed to open pre-schools to children who reach three years of age. As far as primary education is concerned, in Italy, The Casti Law (1859) provided the establishment of compulsory lower primary school (including 1st and 2nd class) and higher primary school (including 3rd and 4rth class). Municipalities had to take care of this and by 1861 this establishment is extended to the whole of Italy. Currently, with the approval of Legislative decree 59/2004, primary school education is now composed of 5-year primary school and 3-year lower secondary school education.
After the approval of decree no. 59, the debates are going on how teachers are going toDraw-up portfolios of children and communicate with the familiesCounseling, coaching and holding pupilsPlan learning units regarding every pupil requirementsLastly, the 1994 consolidation act, with all the previous introductions of laws like Law 820/1971, Law 477/1973, Law 517/1977 and Law 148/1990, have brought innovations in teaching methodologies like: Supplementary activities and special teaching classes (music, drama, etc) are introduced.
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