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Popular Sovereignty or Cosmopolitan Democracy

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The Persians invaded Greece and captured their territories, but were unable to maintain their position for long. The freedom fighters raised revolts against the tyranny and they had to quit their land ultimately. Moreover, the Persians used to destroy the economic stability of the Athenians and captured their finances resulting in significant losses of the economy. Tumin also supports the existence of social classes in primitive ages. According to historical and archaeological records, he states, stratification was present even in the small wandering bands that characterized the society in the earliest days of man.

In such primitive conditions, according to him, both age and sex in combination with physical strength must have been important criteria of stratification. (1978: p 16). It is a fact beyond doubt that man is rebelled by nature and cannot abide by the statute of laws and the set of norms for long. Thus, there is always a need for implementation of policies by force in a political set up. The force may be the political, militarily or republic. “ If one wants” , Machiavelli opines, “ to preserve a city that is accustomed to being independent and having free institutions, it is more easily held by using its citizens to govern it than in any other way. ” (Quoted in Porter, 1997: p 226) Machiavelli declares the use of force an essential element to maintain order in society.

He suggests to the new ruler three ways of holding a sovereign state, which includes destroying of the existing institutions, living in the same area of rule, and let the population continue to live according to their prevailing rules of law. He considers the first one as the most favorable one in order to run a powerful system of government and maintain peace and harmony within the republic as well as citizenship.

The renowned German philosopher Karl Marx maintains some different view in this regards. He considers conflict as the solution of political and social turmoil and predicts the evidence of a revolution in case of the anarchical situation in a society, where unequal distribution of wealth and resources create a socio-political turmoil.

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