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Biological Psychology

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The behavioral perspective is said to have started with rats.   Years of watching rats navigate themselves through mazes prompted psychologist John Watson to arrive at the realization that he could accurately predict where rats would navigate in the maze, especially when they knew where food was to be found. Based on his observations, he then suggested that maybe man’ s behavior is as simple as A B C.   The letter A refers to the antecedent or the environmental trigger; B refers to the behavioral response to the environment trigger: and C now refers to the consequence or what happens next (Johnson, 2003).   Based on his experiments, Watson believed that the best way to explain human behavior is through observation.   And that behavior often starts as a response to the environment (Johnston, 2003).     The behavioral perspective is said to have started with rats.   Years of watching rats navigate themselves through mazes prompted psychologist John Watson to arrive at the realization that he could accurately predict where rats would navigate in the maze, especially when they knew where food was to be found.

Based on his observations, he then suggested that maybe man’ s behavior is as simple as A B C.   The letter A refers to the antecedent or the environmental trigger; B refers to the behavioral response to the environment trigger: and C now refers to the consequence or what happens next (Johnson, 2003).   Based on his experiments, Watson believed that the best way to explain human behavior is through observation.   And that behavior often starts as a response to the environment (Johnston, 2003).     The behavioral perspective is also rooted in Ivan Pavlov’ s reasoning (Sandhya, 2003).   Ivan Pavlov is known for his stimulus-response theory which was observed when a dog salivated at the sight of meat and then later when the smell of meat already made the dog salivate (Quinn, 2000).   He applied the same concept to other stimuli – a tuning fork – accompanied by the immediate delivery of food to the dog.   Later, it was observed that the dog would also salivate when they heard the sound of the tuning fork.

“ Pavlov considered that this salivation was a learned response as opposed to an innate reflex that termed the process ‘ conditioning’ ” (Quinn, 2000, p.

112).   In other words, behaviorists believed that by carefully controlling the stimulus in the environment, behavior can actually be modified in predictable ways.   Through learning, the behavior is shaped and conditioned responses to stimuli can be predicted and explained (Sandhya, 2003).   Schizophrenia is considered to be a chronic and disabling brain disorder (Medicine. net, 2010).   The symptoms for this disorder may be classified into positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms.   The positive symptoms are those which are not seen among healthy people and often manifest as hallucinations, delusions (sometimes, delusions of persecution), thought disorders, and movement disorders (agitated body movement, catatonia) (Medicine. net. , 2010).    

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