Abuse is characterized by maladaptive patterns of use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress and manifested by tolerance, withdrawal, and inability to fulfill role obligations, recurrent substance-related legal problems, and social and interpersonal problems (Pyne, et. Abuse of alcohol becomes alcoholism and several diseases have been associated with this condition. One of these is cirrhosis, which can lead to death when not treated. Cancer, heart diseases, maternal and child health problems, injuries, accidents, and violence are also effects of alcohol abuse. Another substance that has been commonly abused is nicotine, through cigarettes and tobaccos.
Lung cancer and heart diseases are the most frequent effects of nicotine addiction, both of which are the biggest contributors in causing death in nicotine abusers. Substance abuse does not only happen with alcohol and cigarettes, even over the counter medicine can lead to substance abuse. The point of which shows that substance or any drugs, habitually taken makes the body get used to it eventually leading the individual to feel and believe that they are experiencing positive effects of the drugs. Psychological effects lead the user to believe that they feel fine whenever they take in the substance, which leads them to overuse it.
This, in turn, leads to abuse and eventually addiction, wherein their bodies become dependent on the substance. Prohibited drugs, like marijuana, cocaine, and LSD, affect brain processes mainly disrupting the normal neurotransmission in the brain interfering with the brain’ s communication system (Coombs and Howatt, 42). Addictive drugs tend to send false messages to and fro the brain, with the mistaking it for the real messages, thus it confuses not only the brain processes but leads to a disruption in other body functions, such as movement and blood flow.
This can be related to a disruption of the still water in a pond wherein when you throw a rock into it repeatedly, the ripples become indistinguishable.
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