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APOA2 in relation to chronic diseases

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Currently, personalized nutrition is a practice that is not common as it is not routine for polygenic diseases to be genotype because it is a costly undertaking. A number of private organizations offer personalized nutrition and genotypes recommendations based on a few genetic variations. However, this has not been confirmed as being effective in the prevention of chronic diseases or promotion of health. Genetic variation amongst the human populace is very minimal with approximately 99% being genetically identical and a minimal variation in the 3billion bp. However, the approximated 1% in variations of genes leads to a broad variance in health outcomes that are dependent on environmental exposures and dietary intake.

Some of these genetic variations between individuals are due to single nucleotide polymorphisms. SNPs are variations in a gene in single base pairs and vary in individuals that may or may not affect their health. Whether it has an effect is dependent on the gene that is linked to the SNP, the SNP genotype, and the presence of one or two copies of SNP genotype. In rare conditions, an SNP can be the cause of disease such as in the case of sickle cell anemia.

Often, an individual’s health is affected by SNPs that increase or decrease the risk of chronic disease. There an estimated 10million human genome SNPs with an individual pattern and own number, some of which influence an individual’s nutritional status though this is yet established. Genetic variability in an individual affects their nutritional status in several ways, such as taste and appetite, nutrient requirements, chronic disease risk, energy utilization response to dietary intake. Researchers at Tufts University discovered gene linked to obesity and that is set off by saturating fat.

In the study, the apolipoprotein A-II gene promoter (APOA2), a DNA piece controlling APOA2 gene expression was found to be associated with obesity in persons possessing the genotype CC (an APOA2 promoter variant). There are two variants of APOA2– T and C, which are subdivided to three genotypes TT, CC, and TC. The gene is responsible for encoding apolipoprotein (apo-) A-II, the second most common protein of the HDL particles. The protein occurs in apolipoprotein in plasma as a heterodimer, homodimer, or monomer.

Gene defects could result in a deficiency of apolipoprotein A-II or hypercholesterolemia. Although studies have shown interactions between gene and diet, their replication levels are still very low (Ordovas, 2004; Afman, 2006, Corella, 2005; Loos, 2005).

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