S Constitution’s Fourteenth Amendment bars states from enacting any law which shall abridge (lessen) the constitutional rights and privileges of citizens of the United States nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the law. ” The Equal Protection Clause guarantees that individuals in groups of persons or persons in situations that are similar should be equally treated. Ruth Bader Ginsburg the case lawyer and the subsequent judge of the Supreme Court labeled the Reeds case as “the turning point case. ” The state law for the first time was held invalid because it allowed discrimination against women. S Supreme Court in 1857 in the Dred Scott v.
Sandford, 60 U. 691, concluded that the constitution did not find its application to the African Americans as they were not considered to be citizens during the drafting of the constitution. New laws were mandatory after the civil war for purposes of extending former slaves civil liberties. Reed v Reed was the initial U. S Supreme Court ruling that concluded that laws subjective to gender discrimination were violating the Fourteenth Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause.
Decades after the case ruling, the court utilized the precedence set in the ruling to make rulings eliminating discriminatory laws against women. On the other hand, the ruling also benefitted men as it prevented courts from basing their views on gender generalizations. The constitution’s Thirteenth Amendment was enacted for purposes of making the involuntary servitude and slavery unlawful acts. Moreover, the power to enact laws was handed to the Congress which necessitated the new amendments enforcement. Both the cases had a positive impact in the society. For instance, the women were treated equally like men and were not discriminated against based on sex, religion, gender or nationality.
The landmark constitutional amendments enabled all the citizens of the United States, naturalized or born in that country not to be deprived of their civil rights such as the right to equal protection of the law and the due process of law. The sixties was a time when United States experienced a great turbulence. Protest was part and parcel of the American life as they sought to define themselves in a new and modern era.
As such, the individual rights ideas became more significant. The following cases were
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